Autoimmune case study

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Weakness in his legs continued to worsen. On further physical examination, the physician notes that the thyroid gland feels normal, that her eyes and eyelids appear normal, and that she has no fine finger tremor. Schedule routine gynecologic examinations. Laboratory findings include increased levels of the serum globulins, aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase, and prolonged partial thromboplastin time, typically without hyperbilirubinemia. Abnormally elevated levels of liver enzymes and proteins are suggestive of liver disease. The preferred first-line treatment of systemic lupus without major organ involvement is an antimalarial drug and a low-dose glucocorticoid usually prednisone , two of only three drugs approved by the FDA for use in systemic lupus. Depression is also common, occurring in about one-third of individuals. The joint pain, swelling, and fatigue continue. Limbic encephalitisis is an autoimmune condition affecting the part of the brain involved in behavioral and emotional responses. Because of increasing and decreasing immunological activity, it makes AIH difficult to diagnose.

He had several episodes of memory loss a day, lasting five to 10 minutes each, and was unable to find his home. In the central nervous system, deregulation of the immune system is the cause of autoimmune encephalitis.

Other common symptoms include the discoid rash elsewhere on the body, photosensitivity, Raynaud phenomenon, joint pain especially in proximal joints of the fingersfatigue, dry eye syndrome, low-grade fever, small oral ulcers, pain and swelling in both hips, and slight pleural rub.

One year after the initiation of treatment, she continues to feel much better than she "has in a long time" and has made several new friends in her local support group. The microscopic organizational unit of the liver is the acinus. Depression is also common, occurring in about one-third of individuals.

On physical examination, the vital signs are normal, except for a low-grade fever. Rationale and comments: The rheumatologist's treatment and follow-up plan meet all the recommendations in established guidelines.

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She continues to feel fatigue so overwhelming that she must call in sick to work at least once or twice every month. The radiographic evidence of degeneration in the left hip and the morning stiffness that lasts less than one hour suggest osteoarthritis. Laboratory testing confirmed that she did not have Graves disease, as a low TSH level with increased T4 levels indicates hyperthyroidism. On further physical examination, the physician notes that the thyroid gland feels normal, that her eyes and eyelids appear normal, and that she has no fine finger tremor. In addition, the findings of a low-grade fever, limitation in the range of motion of the hip, and decreased muscle strength near an affected joint are consistent with rheumatoid arthritis. AIH affects approximately 0. The disease has a variable presentation. Her other symptoms continue, and he reiterates the need for her to continue with the rheumatologist's treatment plan. The findings of the skin biopsy indicate small vessel vasculitis. Abnormally elevated levels of liver enzymes and proteins are suggestive of liver disease. Blood from the hepatic artery combines with blood from the portal vein in a network of tiny blood vessels called sinusoids. Laboratory findings include increased levels of the serum globulins, aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase, and prolonged partial thromboplastin time, typically without hyperbilirubinemia. Patient A interprets the suggestion of counseling and an antidepressant as meaning that her physical symptoms are "in her head," and she becomes even more frustrated. The clinical findings, coupled with the results of laboratory testing, fulfill nine of the 11 criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus; four criteria are needed for a definite diagnosis.

The physician notices small ulcers in her mouth, pain and swelling in both hips, and a slight pleural rub. Blood from the hepatic artery combines with blood from the portal vein in a network of tiny blood vessels called sinusoids.

There is slight limitation in the range of motion of both hips, with some decreased muscle strength in the left leg.

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However, in the s it was observed that there were no prerequisites for the contraction of chronic active hepatitis. Joint symptoms are usually bilateral.

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Autoimmune Condition Case Studies