It could be based on 1 historical data what you had last year with variations for the coming year ; 2 0-based data where the budget is created and justified on a line-item basis according to programmes and priorities; 3 an MBO system - management by objectives whereby specific objectives are funded; and 4 a PERT system - programme review and evaluation technique - where each programme is reviewed and assessed according to its contribution to specific goals.
Thus authority flows from presidents to vice-presidents to divisional managers, from ministers to deputies to directors, from principals to vice-principals to deans, etc. Monitors also watch for changes in the environment and within the company that may affect individual and organizational performance.
Strauss and J.
Conversely, they may be promoted from within and groomed for top management with management development activities, coaching, and mentoring. To give periodic reports of the workers to the higher level managers.
The nature, direction, and quality of discussion flows are important, as are the interrelationships among group members, their stances toward one another, and the tenor and tone of group work. Business leaders need to be clear on the goals of the company and implement processes and procedures and are willing to monitor and adjust based on critical feedback.
In fact, both implicitly equate process improvement with process management.