Issues related the classification of schizophrenia
Types of schizophrenia dsm 5
Noll also argues around one third of patients do not respond to drugs which block dopamine so other neurotransmitters may be involved. CBT aims to identify and alter irrational thinking including regarding: General beliefs. Multiple genes and different combinations of their polymorphic variants provide the genetic background, with a proportion of the transmitted genotypes remaining clinically unexpressed. Negative symptoms. Verbal memory impairment has been linked to a decreased ability in those with schizophrenia to semantically encode process information relating to meaning , which is cited as a cause for another known deficit in long-term memory. Cognitive experiences are ones that relate to mental action; such as learning, remembering and functioning. This raises practical and ethical issues when selecting different types of tretment. This can help to improve how you feel about family relationships. Behavior can include resistance to instructions, inappropriate or bizarre posture, a complete lack of response, or useless and excessive movement.
For example, under this heading is the issue of co morbidity, which is the extent to which two or more conditions, such as schizophrenia and depression, occur in the same patient at the same time.
Clozapine, Olazapine and Risperidone. These are false beliefs that are not based in reality.
Social withdrawal, sloppiness of dress and hygiene, and loss of motivation and judgment are all common in schizophrenia. Methods of coping with problems. Once on the ward, the pseudopatients stopped pretending symptoms, behaved normally and wrote observations.
This is most pronounced with olanzapine; risperidone and quetiapine are also associated with weight gain.
Exam Advice You MUST revise everything - because the exam board could choose any question, however, it does make sense to spend more time on those topics which have not appeared for a while. Most of the attributes defining schizophrenia are primarily inferential and depend on self-reported subjective experience.
Comorbidity describes people who suffer from two or more mental disorders. Antipsychotic drugs are highly effective as they are relatively cheap to produce, easy to administer and have a positive effect on many sufferers. CBT can help you to manage your feelings and symptoms better. Genetic linkage and association studies have targeted multiple candidate loci and genes, but failed to demonstrate that any specif ic gene variant, or a combination of genes, is either necessary or sufficient to cause schizophrenia. This can help reduce any problems in the family caused by your symptoms. Is the raised dopamine levels the cause of the schizophrenia, or is it the raised dopamine level the result of schizophrenia? It could be that the problems caused by low neurotransmitters creates the cognitive deficits. Symptoms can include catatonic stupor and waxy flexibility. Despite the belief that identification of the symptoms of schizophrenia would make for more valid diagnoses of the disorder, many of these symptoms are also found in many other disorders, such as depression and bipolar disorder. They assumed the bogus patients were schizophrenic with no real evidence. In the past, antipsychotics had negative side effects. This suggests that the cognitive approach is oversimplistic when consider the explanation of schizophrenia. Your medication should be reviewed at least once a year. Reliability - AO1 For the classification system to be reliable, differfent clinicians using the same system e.
Jakobsen et al. The underlying structural and functional pathology is insufficiently understood, and there is no objective diagnostic test or validated biological marker that could provide a secure anchor for either clinical decision-making or biological and epidemiological research.
You're now subscribed to receive email updates! This means that the brains of schizophrenics are lighter than normal.
Issues related the classification of schizophrenia
Validity - AO1 For the classification system to be valid it should be meaningful and classify a real pattern of symptoms, which result from a real underlying cause. Supporting evidence for the brain structure explanation comes from further empirical support from Suddath et al. Normalisation: Help the patient realise it is normal to have negative thoughts in certain situations. Both working memory tasks and gamma oscillations are impaired in schizophrenia, which may reflect abnormal interneuron functionality. Pederson and Mortensen Denmark found Scandanavian villages have very LOW levels of psychosis, but 15 years of living in a city increased risk. Positive symptoms are an excess or distortion of normal functions, for example hallucinations, delusions and thought disturbances such as thought insertion. Comorbidity describes people who suffer from two or more mental disorders. Some sufferers only take a course of antipsychotics once, while others have to take a regular dose in order to prevent symptoms reappearing. The therapist needs to accept that the illusions may seem real to the patient at the time and should be dealt with accordingly. Symptoms may include: Delusions. Notably, Leonhard's classification neither expands, nor constricts, the outer boundaries of schizophrenia, but carves up the schizophrenia spectrum in a different way. It is difficult to keep this treatment going once the patients are back at home in the community. AO3 One criticism of the dopamine hypothesis is there is a problem with the chicken and egg.
based on 64 review